Ancient Greek #2: Verbs- Introduction

Greek verbs consists of a stem and an inflection (a suffix or prefix that denotes the properties of the verb). Each verb has up to six stems. In Greek, verbs have the following properties:


First the subject is the speaker
Second the subject is the listener
Third the subject is someone other than the speaker or listener


Singular One subject
Dual A pair of subjects
Plural Multiple subjects


Active The subject performs the action
Passive Action is performed on the subject
Middle The subject performs the action for itself


Indicative Indicates an occurrence
Imperative Gives a command
Subjunctive Presents a hypothetical situation
Optative Presents a hypothetical situation


Present occurring at the moment
Imperfect occurs continuously in the past
Future will occur in the future
Aorist occurred in the past
Perfect occurred recently and is relevant to the present
Pluperfect occurred in the past and was relevant to a recent event
Future perfect will occur in the future as a result of a finished action


Imperfective perceived as a continuous process
Aoristic perceived as a one-time occurrence
Perfective perceived as a completed occurrence



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